German Holy Card depicting a manger scene. Below in German is John 3:16. Of the four Gospels only Matthew and Luke have an infancy narrative. Only these two describe the birth of Christ. In Luke’s account of the birth, an angel tells shepherds to visit the Christ child. In those times, shepherds were seen as uneducated, liars and cheats, so much so that their testimony was not accepted in courts. Luke, who glorified the marginalized, has these “outcasts” coming to adore Jesus. In addition, only Luke has the “good thief,” another marginalized person who comes to realize Christ’s divinity. Matthew has the wise men follow a star to visit baby Jesus. Matthew’s message is that gentiles (non-Jewish astrologers from the east) are the first to recognize Jesus as messiah. Keywords: Advent, Manger, Christmas, Nativity, Creche, Camels, Wisemen, Wise Men, Baby, Epiphany, shepherds

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